Cervical cancer is one of the most common types of cancers found among women. Abnormal growth of cells or tumor found on cervix often contributes to cervix cancer. Pap smear is a pathological method used to find out the cancerous cells. After the introduction of this method, the incidence of cervical cancer had decreased considerably
Abnormal growth of cells in the lining of uterus is endometrial cancer. Hysterectomy is the medical name for the removal of uterus. Total hysterectomy is the process of removing uterus and cervix, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Removal of the entire uterus and half to two third portions of vagina is known as radical hysterectomy.
Radical hysterectomy is usually recommended for patients in the initial stages of cervix cancer. This process can be done as an open surgery and as a laparoscopic surgery. In open surgery an incision about 6 inches is made in the abdomen of the patient and through this incision the interior of the abdomen is accessed by the surgeon. The surgeon cuts the uterus and around two third portions of the vagina and removes them out through the incision.
But in laparoscopic method a laparoscope is inserted through a small incision of half inch size in the lower part of the abdomen. Laparoscope is an instrument in which a small video camera with a light source is connected on one side of a long tube. The other side of the tube is connected to a monitor that can be viewed by the physician. The laparoscope is inserted to the inner side of the abdomen through the small incision. It takes videos of the internal parts where the surgery is taking place. Instruments for surgery are inserted through other three small incisions on the abdomen. The surgeon controls the instruments remotely by viewing this video and conducts the surgery. In a similar way, removal of uterus, cervix and fallopian tubes are done by the surgeon in total hysterectomy.
Though a portion of the vagina is cut in radical hysterectomy, the ability of woman to enjoy sex is not reduced as the vaginal lining and the clitoral area remains intact.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) can also cause cervix cancer. HPV Vaccination is now available. All women in the age gap of 16 to 45 and men in the age group of 9 to 26 are advised to take this vaccination. Although men cannot have cervix cancer, this vaccination can stop spreading the disease and reduce the risk of anal cancer.