Hysteroscopy is a diagnostic procedure. This procedure is used for therapeutic purposes also. In this procedure the inside of a uterus is viewed by inserting a scope into it though the vagina.
The scope is an instrument which is connected with a video camera on one side and the other side is connected to a video monitor placed before the surgeon. This allows the surgeon to view the inside of the uterus, opening of the fallopian tubes, cervix etc. through the videos taken by the scope. Hygroscopes of different sizes are available. Simple hagioscopes which are very thin can be used only for viewing the interior of the uterus. But hygroscope combined with instruments which can be used to remove fibroids or used for surgical manipulation are also available now.
Hysteroscopy is used for evaluating the reasons for a lot of gynecological problems found in women. They include bleeding of vagina, non expulsion of plasma after child birth, genital abnormalities in female genital tract, fibroid formations inside uterus or cervical canal etc. Hysteroscopy is also used for finding the exact location of the uterus for biopsy purpose. In hysteroscopy, only the interior of uterus is examined. So it will not be possible to study about the problems faced by the outer wall of the uterus.
Hysteroscopy is a very simply procedure that it can be carried out at an outpatient centre or in an operation theatre. When hygroscope with a very small diameter is used dilation of cervical opening is not necessitated. In such cases no anesthesia is given. In other cases local anesthesia or anesthesia is administered by pills or regional anesthesias are given. After inserting the scope a suitable gas or liquid is injected into to enlarge the uterine cavity.
Hysteroscopy is not done on pregnant women or who are having uterus infection or uterus cancer. Generally hysteroscopy is a procedure which is accompanied by less complications or risks. Bleeding and some cramping are usually felt after the procedure. Damage to urinary tract, complications resulting from drugs or anesthetic agents are also possible after this procedure. Accidental perforations of the uterus may occur in this procedure. It has been found that percentage of occurrence of perforations In therapeutic hysteroscopy and diagnostic hysteroscopy are 1 % and 0.1 % respectively.