The situation of food and stomach acids coming back to esophagus causing heartburn is called gastroesophageal disease (GERD). Esophagus reaches belly from throat by passing through an opening in the diaphragm which separates belly and chest. In some persons the hole through which esophagus passes is large and this causes some belly parts to protrude to the chest region through this large hole. This is medically known as haital hernia. The procedure used to remove haital hernia is known as fundoplication. The process of fundoplication is detailed below.
1) If intestine or other parts have come above through the hole in the diaphragm through which esophagus passes, those parts are pressed into its previous place.
2) The surgeon places a synthetic mesh along this area to make sure that the repositioned parts of the body does not come back again through this hole.
3) Upper part of the stomach is stitched to the end of the esophagus which exerts pressure on esophagus preventing the flowing back of food through esophagus.
This process can be done through open surgery or through laparoscopic surgery. In open surgery an incision about 8 inch will be made in the abdomen and surgery as detailed above is completed.
Laparoscopic fundoplication. In this type of surgery, three or four small holes are cut on the body. Through one of these holes, laparoscope an instrument in which a camera and a light source are connected to one end of the tube. This camera and light will be inserted to the place where the operation has to be done. Through other holes, the instruments for carrying out the surgery are inserted. The surgeon carries out the above mentioned procedure by looking at the monitor near him through which the video of the surgery area are shown.
The most important benefit of laparoscopic surgery is that this is a one day process and can be done very easily and does not take much time also. The other benefit is that the cut in this case is very small compared to the cut in an open surgery. Hence the healing will be faster and loss of blood will be less. So recovery will be faster. This is done as a one day operation and the person undergoing this operation can go for his normal job within one or two days after the operation.