Due to weakness of the support structures, the rectum may protrude through the anus or prolapse may occur internally which will not be visible externally. Pain in the rectum, mucus drainage through rectum and bleeding are the common symptoms of rectal prolapse.
Obstruction to defecation is the general symptom for internal rectal prolapse. Rectal prolapse may occur while defecating or while at rest. There are three types of rectal prolapse. They are full thickness, external, circumferential. In full thickness rectal prolapse, the whole layers of rectal walls prolapse. Prolapse of the rectum is visible externally in external prolapse. When all the circumferential area is affected, prolapse it is circumferential.
After administering anesthesia a small incision of 1 to 2 cms in size is made on the lower part of the abdomen. Through this incision the laparoscope is inserted into the interior of the body. A laparoscope is a long tube at one end of which is connected a small videos camera and the other end of the tube is connected to a monitor placed on the table before the surgeon. Through two or three keyholes in the abdomen, the instruments used for the surgery are inserted. Seeing the videos through the monitor surgeon performs the surgery.
Surgeon locates the sigmoid colon and rectum. Then the rectum is cleared from all its connections to the body. This helps the rectum to be free from all attachments and the rectum is now placed in the appropriate position and a mesh is placed and stitches are made to fix the rectum properly. Mesh or sutures are made use of in positioning the rectum. If necessary a portion of the sigmoid colon is removed to facilitate the proper positioning of the rectum.
At the end of the surgery the pelvic area is rinsed and the incisions are stitched.
When you reach home after the surgery you are asked to walk a little distance everyday as it is the best exercise for recovery and return to normal life. You will be asked to be on soft diet till your post check up date. If you experience constipation or if some other complications arise, you have to contact the hospital immediately.